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Journal Papers
 |  Patents  |  Book Chapters  |  Conference Proceedings

Due to journal ownership of copyrights, I have not posted pdf copies of the papers here.  Instead, I have posted links to the journal sites, which should work if your institution has access.  If you cannot obtain an article via the link, I will be happy to send it to you upon request: contatc me at smela@umd.edu.

Paper Topic Code:
act = actuation
    CP = conjugated polymer
    DEA = dielectric elastomer
    DEP = dielectrophoresis
    nast = fluidic nastic actuators
sens = sensing
    cell = cell-based sensors
    piezo = piezoresistive sensors
    FO = fiber optic

MEMS = fluid = microfluidics
LC = liquid crystal
PCR = 2D PCR
PLED = polymer light emitting diode
SAM = self-assembled monolayer
stretch = compliant electrodes


Click on Year to sort by year, and click on Code to sort by the paper topic codes given above.

Year Code Citation
2017
sens-piezo
cell E. M. Barnett, J. J. Lofton, M. Yu, H. Bruck, and E. Smela
"Targeted feature recognition using mechanical spatial filtering with a low-cost compliant strain sensor"
Sci. Rep. 7:5118, DOI:10.1038/s41598-017-05341-w (2017)
[Abstract]
direct link to PDF          direct link to supporting information
2017
act-nast
cell E. Smela
"Challenges in realizing a self-contained hydraulically-driven contractile fiber actuator"
Faraday Discuss. DOI: 10.1039/c6fd00235h (2017)
[Abstract]
link to PDF on RSC site          direct link to supporting information
2016
act-nast
cell D. Sritharan and E. Smela
"Fabrication of a miniature paper-based electroosmotic actuator"
Polymers 8(11) 400 (2016)
[Abstract]
link to PDF on MDPI site
          direct link to supporting information
2016
sens-cell
cell T. Datta-Chaudhuri, E. Smela, and P. Abshire
"System-on-chip considerations for heterogeneous integration of CMOS and fluidic bio-interfaces"
IEEE Trans. Biomed. Circ. Syst. 10(6)1129-1142 (2016)
[Abstract]
link to PDF on IEEE site
2016
sens-cell
cell T. Datta-Chaudhuri, R. C. Araneda, P. Abshire, and E. Smela
"Olfaction on a chip"
Sens. Act. B 235 (1 Nov), 74–78 (2016)
[Abstract]
link to PDF on IOP site          direct link to supporting information
2016
sens-piezo
cell Y. Chen, M. Yu, H. A. Bruck, and E. Smela
"Stretchable touch-sensing skin over padding for co-robots"
Sens. Act. B 25, 055006 (2016)
[Abstract]
link to PDF on IOP site          direct link to supporting information
2015
act-nast
cell D. Sritharan, A. S. Chen, P. Aluthgama, B. Naved, and E. Smela
"Bubble-free electrokinetic flow with propylene carbonate"
Electrophoresis 36, 2622-2629 (2015)
[Abstract]
link to PDF on Wiley site          direct link to supporting information
2015
sens-piezo
cell E. Sauerbrunn, Y. Chen, J. Didion, M. Yu, E. Smela, and H. A. Bruck
"Thermal imaging using polymernanocomposite temperature sensors"
Phys. Stat. Sol. 212 (10), 2239–2245 (2015)
[Abstract]
link to PDF on Wiley site
2015
other
cell I. D. Jung, M. C. Lee, H. Lim, E. Smela, and J. S. Ko
"Microbumpers maintain superhydrophobicity of nanostructured surfaces upon touch"
Appl. Surf. Sci., 349, 705–714 (2015)
[Abstract]
link to PDF on Elsevier site          direct link to supporting information
2015
act
SHP B. Balakrisnan, A. N. Nacev, and E. Smela
"Design of bending multi-layer electroactive polymer actuators"
Smart Mater. Struct., 24(045032 (2015)
[Abstract]
link to PDF on IOP site           direct link to supporting information
direct link to Matlab program
2014
fluid
spiral J. M. Burke, R. E. Zubajlo, E. Smela, and I. M. White
"High-throughput particle separation and concentration using spiral inertial filtration"
Biomicrofluidics, 8(2), 024105 (2014)
[Abstract]
link to PDF on AIP site
2014
PCR
cell M. Armani, M. Tangrea, B. Yang, A. Rosenberg, K. Ylaya, J. Martinez, J. Rodriguez-Canales, J. Hanson, B. Shapiro, M. R. Emmert-Buck, E. Smela, and S. M. Hewitt
"Multiplex quantitative measurement of mRNAs from fixed tissue microarray sections"
Diag. Molec. Pathol., Published Ahead-of-Print doi: 10.1097/PDM.0000000000000039, (2014)
[Abstract]
                            link to PDF on AIMM site          direct link to unformatted text and supporting information
2014
act-CP
cell E. D. Daneshvar and E. Smela
"Characterization of conjugated polymer actuation under cerebral physiological conditions"
Adv. Healthcare Mater., 3(7), 1026–1035 (2014)
[Abstract]
link to PDF on Wiley site         direct link to unformatted text & supporting information
2014
sens-cell
cell T. Datta-Chaudhuri, P. Abshire, and E. Smela
"Packaging commercial CMOS chips for lab on a chip integration"
Lab Chip, 14(10), 1753 - 1766 (2014)
[Abstract]
link to PDF on RSC site           direct link to supporting information
2013
sens-piezo
cell J. Wissman, A. Perez-Rosado, A. Edgerton, B. M. Levi, Z. N. Karakas, M. Kujawski, A. Philipps, N. Papavizas, D. Fallon, H. A. Bruck, and E. Smela
"New compliant strain gauges for self-sensing dynamic deformation of flapping wings on miniature air vehicles"
Smart Mater. Struct., 22, 085031 (2013)
[Abstract]
                            link to PDF on IOP site          direct link to supporting information
2012
stretch
cell B. Balakrisnan, A. Nacev, J. M. Burke, A. Dasgupta, and E. Smela
"Design of compliant meanders for applications in MEMS, actuators, and flexible electronics"
Smart Mater. Struct., 21, 075033 (2012)
[Abstract]
link to PDF on IOP site           direct link to supporting information
2012
MEMS
cell M. Dandin, P. Abshire, and E. Smela
"Polymer filters for ultraviolet-excited integrated fluorescence sensing"
J. Micromech. Microeng., 22, 095018 (2012)
[Abstract]
link to PDF on IOP site           direct link to supporting information
2012
fluid
cell J. M. Burke and E. Smela
"A novel surface modification technique for forming porous polymer monoliths in PDMS"
Biomicrofluidics, 6 (1), 016506 (2012)
[Abstract]
link to PDF on AIP site          
2011
PCR
cell M. Armani, M. A. Tangrea, B. Shapiro, M. R. Emmert-Buck, and E. Smela
"Quantifying mRNA levels across tissue sections with 2D-RT-qPCR"
Anal. Bioanal. Chem., 400 (10), 3383-3393 (2011)
[Abstract]
link to PDF on Springer site           direct link to supporting information
2011
act-CP
cell S. Alben, B. Balakrisnan, and E. Smela
"Edge effects determine the direction of bilayer bending"
Nano Lett., 11 (6), 2280–2285 (2011)
[Abstract]
link to PDF on ACS site           direct link to supporting information
2010
stretch
cell M. Kujawski, J. D. Pearse, and E. Smela
"Elastomers filled with exfoliated graphite as compliant electrodes"
Carbon, 48 (9), 2409-2417 (2010)
[Abstract]
link to PDF on Elsevier site           direct link to supporting information
2009
PCR
cell M. Armani, J. Rodriguez-Canales, J. Gillespie, M. Tangrea, H. Erickson, M. R. Emmert-Buck, B. Shapiro, and E. Smela
"2D-PCR: A method of mapping DNA in tissue sections"
Lab Chip, 9(24), 3526 - 3534 (2009)
[Abstract]
link to PDF on RSC site           direct link to supporting information
2009
act-nast
cell M. E. Piyasena, R. Newby, T. J. Miller, B. Shapiro, and E. Smela
"Electroosmotically driven microfluidic actuators"
Sens. Act. B., 141, 263-269 (2009)
[Abstract]
link to PDF on ScienceDirect site          direct link to supporting information
2009
MEMS
cell B. Balakrisnan, S. Patil, and E. Smela
"Patterning PDMS using a combination of wet and dry etching"
J. Micromech. Microeng., 19, 047002 (2009)
[Abstract]
link to PDF on IOP site
2009
CP
cell X. Wang and E. Smela
"Color and volume change in PPy(DBS)"
J. Phys. Chem. C , 113 (1), 359-368 (2009)
[Abstract]
link to PDF on ACS site        link to supporting information, including videos
2009
CP
cell X. Wang and E. Smela
"Experimental studies of ion transport in PPy(DBS)"
J. Phys. Chem. C , 113 (1), 369–381 (2009)
[Abstract]
link to PDF on ACS site        link to supporting information, including videos
2009
CP
cell X. Wang, B. Shapiro, and E. Smela
"Development of a model for charge transport in conjugated polymers"
J. Phys. Chem. C , 113 (1), 382-401 (2009)
[Abstract]
link to PDF on ACS site        link to supporting information
2009
CP
cell B. J. West, T. F. Otero, B. Shapiro, and E. Smela
"Chronoamperometric study of conformational relaxation in PPy(DBS)"
J. Phys. Chem. B, 113 (5), 1277–1293 (2009)
[Abstract]
link to PDF on ACS site        link to supporting information
2008
act-CP
cell E. Smela
"Conjugated polymer actuators"
MRS Bull., 33 (3), 197-204 (2008)
[Abstract]
only available for a fee from MRS -- email me for a PDF copy
2008
act-CP
cell S. B. Prakash, M. Urdaneta, M. Christophersen, E. Smela, and P. Abshire
"In situ electrochemical control of electroactive polymer films on a CMOS chip"
Sens. Act. B , 129 (2), 699-704 (2008)
[Abstract]
link to PDF on ScienceDirect/Elsevier site
2008
DEP
DEP M. Urdaneta and E. Smela
"Parasitic trap cancellation using multiple frequency dielectrophoresis, demonstrated by loading cells into cages"
Lab Chip, 8 (4), 550-556 (2008)
[Abstract]
link to PDF on RSC site
2008
DEP
DEP M. Urdaneta and E. Smela
"The design of dielectrophoretic flow-through sorters using a figure of merit"
J. Micromech. Microeng., 18 (1), Article Number: 015001 (2008)
[Abstract]
link to PDF on IOP site
2007
DEP
Conc Rings M. Urdaneta and E. Smela
"Multiple frequency dielectrophoresis"
Electrophoresis, 28 (18), 3145-3155 (2007)
[Abstract]
link to PDF on Wiley/InterScience site
2007
sens
cell M. Dandin, P. Abshire, and E. Smela
"Optical filtering technologies for integrated fluorescence sensors"
Lab Chip, 7 (8), 955-977 (2007)
[Abstract]
link to PDF on RSC site
2007
stretch
Urdaneta Adv Mat compliant 
 electrodes M. Urdaneta, R. Delille, and E. Smela
"Stretchable electrodes with high conductivity and photopatternability"
Adv. Mater., 19 (18), 2629-2633 (2007)
[Abstract]
link to PDF on Wiley/InterScience site
2007
act-CP
Liu adhesion Y. Liu, Q. Gan, S. Baig, and E. Smela
"Improving PPy adhesion by surface roughening"
J. Phys. Chem. C, 111 (30), 11329-11338 (2007)
[Abstract]
link to PDF on ACS site
2007
stretch
Delille SMS, reduced film R. Delille, M. Urdaneta, K. Hsieh, and E. Smela
"Compliant electrodes based on platinum salt reduction in a urethane matrix"
Smart Mater. Struct., 16 (2), S272 -279 (2007)
[Abstract]
link to PDF on IOP site
2006
act
Shapiro JIMsB. Shapiro and E. Smela
"Bending actuators with maximum curvature and force and zero interfacial
stress"

J. Intell. Mater. Syst. Struct., 18 (2), 181-186 (2006)
[Abstract]
link to PDF on Sage site
2006
FO
Jian LPG Spectra P.-S. Jian and E. Smela
"Modeling the performance of a long-period Bragg grating ambient-index
sensor"

Smart Mater. Struct., 15, 821-828 (2006)
[Abstract]
link to PDF on IOP site
2006
MEMS
Benchtop MEMs R. Delille, M. Urdaneta, S. Moseley, and E. Smela
"Benchtop polymer MEMS"
J. Microelectromech. Syst., 15 (5), 1108-1120 (2006)
[Abstract]
link to PDF on IEEE site          direct link to supporting information
2006
act-CP
MC Bending M. Christophersen, B. Shapiro, and E. Smela
"Characterization and modeling of PPy bilayer microactuators.
Part 1: Curvature"

Sens. Act. B, 115, 596-609 (2006)
[Abstract]
link to PDF on ScienceDirect/Elsevier site          direct link to supporting information
2005
act-CP
PANI in MSA E. Smela and B. R. Mattes
"Polyaniline Actuators, Part 2: PANI(AMPS) in MSA"
Synth. Met., 151, 43-48 (2005)
[Abstract]
link to PDF on Elsevier/Science Direct site

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2005
act-CP
PANI in HCI E. Smela, W. Lu, and B. R. Mattes
"Polyaniline Actuators, Part 1: PANI(AMPS) in HCl"
Synth. Met., 151 (1), 25–42 (2005)
[Abstract]
link to PDF on Elsevier/Science Direct site
2005
act-CP
MAW Setup S. Maw, E. Smela, K. Yoshida, and R. B. Stein
"Effects of monomer and electrolyte concentrations on actuation of
PPy(DBS) bilayers"

Synth. Met., 155 (1), 18-26 (2005)
[Abstract]
link to PDF on ScienceDirect/Elsevier site          direct link to supporting information
2005
act-CP
Lin-MIT Polaron X. Lin, J. Li, E. Smela, and S. Yip
"Polaron-induced conformation change in single polypyrrole chain: an
intrinsic actuation mechanism"

Int. J. Quant. Chem., 102, 980-985 (2005)
[Abstract]
only available for a fee from Wiley/InterScience -- email me for a PDF copy
2004
CP
Wang-Adv Mat Ion Transport X. Wang, B. Shapiro, and E. Smela
"Visualizing ion transport in conjugated polymers"
Adv. Mater., 16 (18), 1605-1609 (2004)
[Abstract]
link to PDF on Wiley/InterScience site
2004
act-CP
Solid in Hollow Fiber W. Lu, E. Smela, P. Adams, G. Zuccarello, and B. R. Mattes
"Development of solid-in-hollow electrochemical linear actuators using highly conductive polyaniline"
Chem. Mater., 16 (9), 1615-1621 (2004)
[Abstract]
no online access at this time -- email me for a PDF copy
2003
act-CP
Bood Vessel Connectors E. Smela
"Conjugated polymer actuators for biomedical applications"
Adv. Mater., 15 (6), 481-494 (2003)
[Abstract]
link to PDF on Wiley/InterScience site

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2003
act-CP
Pyo Plated Au M. Pyo, C. C. Bohn, E. Smela, J. R. Reynolds, and A. B. Brennan
"Direct strain measurement of polypyrrole actuators controlled by the
polymer/gold interface"

Chem. Mater., 15 (4), 916-922 (2003)
[Abstract]
link to PDF on ACS site
2002
CP
Lu - Science ILs W. Lu, A. G. Fadeev, B. H. Qi, E. Smela, B. R. Mattes, J. Ding, G. M. Spinks, J. Mazurkiewicz, D. Z. Zhou, G. G. Wallace, D. R. MacFarlane, S. A. Forsyth, and M. Forsyth
"Use of ionic liquids for pi-conjugated polymer electrochemical devices"
Science, 297 (5583), 983-987 (2002)
[Abstract]
link to PDF on JSTOR site    
2001
act-CP
AFM J Phys Chem E. Smela and N. Gadegaard
"Volume change in polypyrrole studied by atomic force microscopy"
J. Phys. Chem. B, 105 (39), 9395-9405 (2001)
[Abstract]
link to PDF on ACS site
2001
act-CP
Maw Current Density S. Maw, E. Smela, K. Yoshida, P. Sommer-Larsen, and R. B. Stein
"The effects of varying deposition current density on bending behaviour
in PPy(DBS)-actuated bending beams"

Sens. Act. A, 89, 175-184 (2001)
[Abstract]
link to PDF on Elsevier/ScienceDirect site
2000
PLED
SLED Y. Kaminorz, E. Smela, T. Johansson, L. Brehmer, M. R. Andersson, and O. Inganäs
"Characteristics of polythiophene surface light emitting diodes"
Synth. Met., 113 (1-2), 103-114 (2000)
[Abstract]
link to PDF on Elsevier/ScienceDirect site
2000
act-CP
Jager Robot Hand E. W. H. Jager, E. Smela, and O. Inganäs
"Microfabricating conjugated polymer actuators"
Science, 290, 1540-1545 (2000)
[Abstract]
link to PDF on JSTOR site

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1999
act-CP
JMEMS Si Plate E. Smela, M. Kallenbach, and J. Holdenried
"Electrochemically driven polypyrrole bilayers for moving and positioning
bulk micromachined silicon plates"

J. Microelectromech. Syst., 8 (4), 373-383 (1999)
[Abstract]
link to PDF on IEEE site
1999
act-CP
Adv Mat AFM E. Smela and N. Gadegaard
"Surprising volume change in PPy(DBS): an atomic force microscopy study"
Adv. Mater., 11 (11), 953-957 (1999)
[Abstract]
link to PDF on Wiley/InterScience site
1999
act-CP
Pixel E. Smela
"A microfabricated movable electrochromic "pixel" based on polypyrrole"
Adv. Mater., 11 (16), 1343-1345 (1999)
[Abstract]
link to PDF on Wiley/InterScience site
1999
act-CP
J. Micromech Microeng PPy Film E. Smela
"Microfabrication of PPy microactuators and other conjugated polymer devices"
J. Micromech. Microeng., 9, 1-18 (1999)
[Abstract]
link to PDF on IOP site
1999
act-CP
No image availableE. W. H. Jager, E. Smela, O. Inganäs, and I. Lundström
"Polypyrrole microactuators"
Synth. Met., 102 (1-3), 1309-1310 (1999)
[Abstract]
link to PDF on Elsevier/ScienceDirect site
1999
act-CP
E. W. H. Jager, E. Smela, and O. Inganäs
"On-chip microelectrodes for electrochemistry with moveable PPy bilayer
actuators as working electrodes"

Sens. Act. B, 56, 73-78 (1999)
[Abstract]
link to PDF on Elsevier/ScienceDirect site
1998
SAM
TEP Structures E. Smela, G. Zuccarello, H. Kariis, and B. Liedberg
"Thiol Modified Pyrrole Monomers: 1. Synthesis, Characterization, and
Polymerization of 1-(2-Thioethyl)-Pyrrole and 3-(2-Thioethyl)-Pyrrole"

Langmuir, 14 (11), 2970-2975 (1998)
[Abstract]
link to PDF on ACS site          link to supporting information

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1998
SAM
Langmuir2 E. Smela, H. Kariis, Z. Yang, K. Uvdal, G. Zuccarello, and B. Liedberg
"Thiol Modified Pyrrole Monomers: 2. As-Deposited Monolayers of 1-(2-Thioethyl)-Pyrrole and 3-(2-Thioethyl)-Pyrrole"
Langmuir, 14 (11), 2976-2983 (1998)
[Abstract]
link to PDF on ACS site          link to supporting information
1998
SAM
Langmuir3 E. Smela, H. Kariis, Z. Yang, M. Mecklenburg, and B. Liedberg
"Thiol Modified Pyrrole Monomers: 3. Electrochemistry of 1-(2-Thioethyl)-
Pyrrole and 3-(2-Thioethyl)-Pyrrole Monolayers in Propylene Carbonate"

Langmuir, 14 (11), 2984-2995 (1998)
[Abstract]
link to PDF on ACS site
          link to supporting information
1998
SAM
Langmuir4 E. Smela
"Thiol Modified Pyrrole Monomers: 4. Electrochemical Deposition of
Polypyrrole over 1-(2-Thioethyl)-Pyrrole Monolayers"

Langmuir, 14 (11), 2996-3002 (1998)
[Abstract]
link to PDF on ACS site
1998
PLED
SLEDs 1 E. Smela, Y. Kaminorz, O. Inganäs, and L. Brehmer
"Planar microfabricated polymer light emitting diodes"
Semicond. Sci. Tech., 13, 433 (1998)
[Abstract]
link to PDF on IOP site
1998

act-CP

Shimoda pH S. Shimoda and E. Smela
"The effect of pH on polymerization and volume change in PPy(DBS)"
Electrochim. Acta, 44 (2-3), 219-238 (1998)
[Abstract]
link to PDF on Elsevier/Pergamon site
1998
sens-CP
Pede Array D. Pede, E. Smela, T. Johansson, M. Johanssen, and O. Inganäs
"A general purpose conjugated polymer array for imaging"
Adv. Mater., 10 (3), 233 (1998)

[Abstract]
link to PDF on Wiley/InterScience site

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1998

SAM

Kariis TEPs H. Kariis, E. Smela, K. Uvdal, M. Wirde, U. Gelius, and B. Liedberg
"Thioethyl-pyrrole monolayers on gold. A spectroscopic study in
ultra high vacuum"

J. Phys. Chem. B, 102 (34), 6529-6538 (1998)
[Abstract]
link to PDF on ACS site
1998

PLED

Kaminorz Oxygen Y. Kaminorz, E. Smela, O. Inganäs, and L. Brehmer
"Sensitivity of polythiophene planar light emitting diodes to oxygen"
Adv. Mater., 10 (10), 765-769 (1998)
[Abstract]
link to PDF on Wiley/InterScience site
1995
LC
Liquid Crystal Part 3 E. Smela and L. J. Martinez-Miranda
"Effect of substrate preparation on smectic liquid crystal alignment: III.
The significance of thermal history"

J. Appl. Phys., 77 (5), 1930-1933 (1995)
[Abstract]
link to PDF on EBSCO site
1995
LC
Liquid Crystal Part 2 E. Smela and L. J. Martinez-Miranda
"Effect of substrate preparation on smectic liquid crystal alignment: II.
Further results and modeling"

J. Appl. Phys., 77 (5), 1923-1929 (1995)
[Abstract]
link to PDF on EBSCO site
1995
act-CP
Box Series E. Smela, O. Inganäs, and I. Lundström
"Controlled folding of micrometer-size structures"
Science, 268 (23 June), 1735-1738 (1995)
[Abstract]
link to PDF on JSTOR site
1993
sens
Suga Gas Sensor K. Suga, N. Koshizaki, K. Yasumoto, and E. Smela
"Gas-sensing characteristics of zinc oxide-nickel monoxide junction
structures with intervening ultrathin silica layer"

Sens. Act. B, 14 (1-3), 598-599 (1993)
[Abstract]
link to PDF on journal website

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1993
LC
X-ray Study E. Smela and L. J. Martinez-Miranda
"X-ray study of substrate-induced alignment of a smectic A liquid crystal"
Liq. Cryst., 14 (6), 1877-1883 (1993)
[Abstract]
link to PDF on journal website
1993
LC
Liquid Crystal Structural Study E. Smela and L. J. Martinez-Miranda
"Effect of substrate preparation on smectic liquid crystal alignment:
a structural study"

J. Appl. Phys., 73 (7), 3299-3304 (1993)
[Abstract]
link to PDF on EBSCO site
1993
act-CP
corkscrew E. Smela, O. Inganäs, Q. Pei, and I. Lundström
"Electrochemical muscles: micromachining fingers and corkscrews"
Adv. Mater., 5, 630-632 (1993)
[Abstract]
link to PDF on Wiley site
1993
act-CP
Challenges and Possibilities E. Smela, O. Inganäs, and I. Lundström
"Conducting polymers as artificial muscles: challenges and possibilities"
J. Micromech. Microeng., 3 (4), 203 (1993)
[Abstract]
link to PDF on IOP site
1991
LC
Alternate Metophase E. Smela and L. J. Martinez-Miranda
"X-ray study of liquid crystal alignment: Evidence for an alternate
mesophase at the free surface?"

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst., 203, 1-8 (1991)
[Abstract]
link to PDF on journal website
1988
FO
Twisted Fiber Optic Sensor E. Smela and J. J. Santiago-Aviles
"A versatile twisted fiber optic sensor"
Sens. Act., 13 (2), 117-129 (1988)
[Abstract]
link to PDF on ScienceDirect site

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